This paper takes cognisance of the difficulties for local leaders to exercise their own discretion. However, it will also put forward an argument that in the absence of national and provincial leadership on HIV/AIDS (or perhaps better put, in the presence of negative leadership), municipalities have the scope and discretion to develop and implement an effective HIV/AIDS response.
It is Chapter 5 (pp. 62-75) in the GGLN's 2010 State of Local Government report entitled, "Ethical Leadership and Political Culture in Local Government". Available for download (whole report) here.